Potent black dye.

Used for cordage, weaving, fishing line and dilli bags.

It is not as good as other plants (e.g. Juncus and others) craft work.

Indigenous people learned how to use mordants (colour fixers similar to commercial dyes).

These mordants were comprised of mineral and natural oxides, sea water, animal and human urine, wattle bark, tannic and other acids.

These were extracted from Paperbark, Eucalypts and Acacias and very often mixed with Emu and Goanna fat.

These pigments persist for a long period of time.

Art works painted at the time of the first settlement are still vibrant to this day.

Unfortunately for the indigenous people examples of art works from this period hang in many European galleries. Efforts to re secure these arts and crafts have proved futile.